A: Ketamine is an FDA approved anaesthetic with a remarkably safe track record in the operating room during surgery, including pediatric surgery. It's on the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. Studies conducted internationally and in the US have shown the use of ketamine to be highly effective for the treatment of pain and mood disorders.
A: Over time, ketamine developed a negative stigma because of its use as a street drug. When used within the medical model, numerous studies and our experience has shown that there is essentially no potential for addiction.
A: Ketamine functions by "resetting" your nervous system, and it triggers the growth of new nerve pathways. It also works as a powerful anti-inflammatory; therefore, ketamine helps with both inflammatory and nerve pain. Ketamine shows excellent success in the treatment of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and migraines.
A: The dose of ketamine we use at Limbic Medical is considered sub-anaesthetic (a lower dose than a patient would get for surgery). We make sure all patients are monitored to ensure safety during the infusion. The infusion can quickly be decreased or stopped if necessary.
A: Once we place the IV (we use the smallest needle possible with advanced numbing techniques), the infusion will begin. We can provide soothing music if requested. The experience is usually described as pleasant and relaxing. You may notice a mild dissociation, a feeling of disorientation, or a floating sensation. Lights or colors may seem more vivid. The infusion itself lasts for only 60 minutes. These feelings start to diminish approximately 10-15 minutes after the infusion is complete. After the infusion, you may feel light-headed for 1-2 hours. We will monitor you after the infusion until you meet our criteria for discharge, at which point you will need a ride home. Unfortunately, we cannot allow our patients to drive themselves after treatment.
A: Side effects are not common with ketamine infusions, but the most common side effects can include nausea, dizziness, changes in blood pressure or heart rate, abnormal muscle movements, disorientation, redness, bruising, or swelling at the IV site, and allergic reactions. Side effects subside once the infusion stops.
A: Many patients feel the benefit after just one ketamine infusion. However, studies and our experience indicates that 4-6 infusions over 2-4 weeks will provide the best efficacy and a longer duration of symptom relief. Maintenance infusions may be necessary on an as-needed basis.
A: Conventional antidepressant medications tend to be associated with the most adverse drug-related reactions. It can take considerable time to determine the best prescription or combinations of medications, and the effects might not be optimal. Even though each patient responds differently to ketamine, patients will know right away if they are gaining any benefits.
A: Although the FDA approves ketamine for some medical purposes, they are not specifically approved for mood disorders and pain management. When ketamine infusions are prescribed for off-label purposes, they are not covered by insurance.

Functional and Nutraceutical Pain Management

A: Yes, it can. At Limbic Medical, we focus on the root cause of the pain to help relieve your suffering. If you feel you are taking too many prescription drugs, want a more holistic approach, or wonder which supplements are right for you, Functional and Nutraceutical Pain Management can help.

Opioid-Free Pain Management

A: Safe, non-addictive alternatives for alleviating pain do exist. What’s more, opioids do a poor job of relieving and managing many common types of pain. Dr. Atoian can help you realize your potential without the use of opioids.

A: Opioid drugs should not be suddenly stopped without supervision and physical and emotional support, as the side effects of opioid withdrawal may be powerful and have dangerous complications. We will use our unique approach to get you off opioids comfortably and compassionately while improving pain control.


A: The majority of Ultrasound-Guided Injections, such as Nerve Blocks, Epidural Injections, and Trigger Point Injections, are performed on an outpatient basis. Some injections are performed on inpatients, who may be already hospitalized for other reasons.

A: A Nerve Block injection targets specific nerves to help treat or manage pain. The purpose of the Nerve Block is to “turn off” the pain signal that comes from a particular location in the body or to reduce inflammation in that area.

A: If you suffer from severe pain, a Nerve Block can help control your pain and improve function and quality of life. A Nerve Block may allow an injured nerve time to heal itself from a state of constant irritation. Additionally, it can help identify a more specific cause of your pain.

A: Epidural Injection is a procedure used to deliver corticosteroid medication around a nerve that comes out from the spinal cord into the epidural space. This is the space into which your disc can potentially herniate (protrude unnaturally) and cause pressure and inflammation around the spinal nerves. Because corticosteroids are medications with strong anti-inflammatory properties, spinal injections of corticosteroids significantly reduce inflammation around an irritated nerve.

A: Several common conditions, such as disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis, may benefit from Epidural Injection. For these and other conditions that can cause acute or chronic pain, Epidural Injection may be an effective non-surgical treatment option.

A: We inject a local anesthetic into the skin to numb the area where the epidural needle is placed. You may experience mild discomfort but not severe pain.

A: Trigger points are extremely common. They are tight “knots” that are painful when pressed on and have a special property called referred pain. Referred pain is when the trigger point of one muscle creates pain in another area. A Trigger Point Injection can help soothe the muscle by injecting a small amount of anesthetic and steroid into the muscle.

A: Specific trigger points that cause pain with firm touch may experience the most relief from injections. Although Trigger Point Injections are beneficial for many painful conditions, they may be particularly helpful for the relief of migraines and pain in the neck, back, and shoulders.


A: You may be a candidate for Stem Cell Injections if you are diagnosed with mild-to-moderate degenerative joint disease, tears of the ligament or cartilage tissue, tendonitis, or any musculoskeletal injury that is not responding to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and pain medications; and you would prefer to avoid or postpone the need for surgery.

A: Some of the most common include tennis elbow, shoulder pains or rotator cuff injuries, tendonitis, osteoarthritis knee pain, Achilles tendon injuries, and ACL injuries.

A: The benefits of Stem Cell Injections start immediately. Most patients will need to receive treatments for anywhere between 1 week to 3 months. After 1 to 2 treatments, most patients experience a reduction in pain, improved mobility, and better overall functionality.


A: PRP Injections can treat several conditions for the arm, shoulder, hip, knee, lower leg, and feet. We treat acute muscle tears and strains, chronic tendinopathies (tennis elbow, rotator cuff, Achilles tendon, and patellar tendon), ligament injuries, osteoarthritis, and more. However, it’s best to consult with Dr. Atoian for a complete listing.

A: PRP Injections are an alternative to surgery. If you prefer a less invasive option to surgery or are unable to undergo a surgery, you may be an ideal candidate for PRP Injections.

A: Upon injection, a large number of growth factors are released at the site of injury. These platelets induce an inflammatory response that initiates healing. The platelets can restore tendons and ligaments as well as strengthen cartilage, allowing it to become firmer and more resilient.

A: Patients usually tolerate the PRP Injection well. Soreness after the PRP Injection is normal due to the PRP-induced inflammatory response. Swelling and soreness are expected during the first 48 hours post injection, and you are given appropriate instructions to help alleviate the discomfort.


A: Bioidentical hormones are derived from plants and mimic the structure and function of those your body naturally produces. All prescriptions are created in a US regulated compounding pharmacy that follows strict regulations in regards to dosage and sterile procedure. Each hormone prescription is created to treat your specific needs.

A: This varies with each person. You can start to see results in 3 to 4 weeks, such as increase or improvement in libido, energy, sleep, moods, and an overall heightened sense of well-being. It’s what you can’t see that really makes a difference; research shows that hormone optimization, along with diet and exercise, decreases your risk factors for disease in the future.

A: At Limbic Medical, we use a combination of oral preparations, creams, and injectables.

A: For hormone deficiencies due to aging, you should continue hormone replacement therapy for as long as you wish to see results.

A: In general, your body’s hormone levels will return to the pre-treatment baseline within 3 to 6 weeks after stopping hormone replacement. As a result, most physical changes that occurred with treatment will revert back.

A: IV Hydration therapy can help balance your fluid and electrolytes and benefit a variety of conditions, including withdrawal symptoms, flu, cold, food poisoning, digestive disorders, and more.

We can also tailor your infusion by adding vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or antioxidants for pain, addiction, mood disorders, migraines, nutritional deficiencies, immune support, fatigue, athletic performance, and preventative and wellness care, among others.

A: IV Vitamin Therapy works by infusing nutrients directly into your bloodstream, bypassing your digestive system. This provides you with 100% bioavailability of the nutrients. Oral supplements may only provide you with about 20% absorption after filtering through your digestive system.

A: There are many factors that determine how long an IV Vitamin Therapy will last. Some vitamins remain in your system and maintain your levels for 2-3 weeks, while others will require a more frequent infusion.

A: We determine the frequency of IV Vitamin Therapy on a patient-by-patient basis. For health and wellness IV therapy, we may recommend two drips per month to help balance any deficiencies. In some cases, with people suffering from addiction, pain, or mood disorders, a series of weekly infusions may be necessary for support.

A: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme to vitamin B-3, is found in every cell in the body and is essential to life. As a foundation for maintaining healthy organs and neurological systems.

A: NAD+ can help repair cells throughout the body, including neurons in the brain, especially when given as a high dose directly through your bloodstream.

Drugs and alcohol deplete the natural stores of NAD+. Because of this, the brain cannot receive the same energy it usually would from breaking down food. It is also speculated that people who naturally produce less NAD+ are more likely to develop an addiction and potentially a co-occurring condition.

A: Yes. IV NAD+ is completely safe and administered by our licensed providers.

A: Glutathione is your body’s master antioxidant—it detoxifies, protects, energizes, and boosts your immune system. Antioxidants are powerful molecules that minimize or prevent oxidative stress, which can be damaging to cells throughout your body.

A: Yes. Glutathione naturally occurs in the body and is administered by our licenced providers.

A: Oral Glutathione gets broken down by enzymes in your digestive tract making it less effective; therefore, the only way to increase your levels is via IV Glutathione or by increasing levels of its precursors.

A: Integrated Addiction Treatment combines conventional, alternative therapies, and cutting-edge technology to search for and treat the underlying causes of addiction and co-occurring disorders. Instead of focusing on and treating the substance abuse problem alone, Limbic Medical takes a holistic approach that includes evaluation of physical, nutritional, environmental, emotional, spiritual, and lifestyle elements

A: Addictive substances, such as drugs and alcohol, should not be suddenly stopped without supervision and physical and emotional support, as the side effects of withdrawal may be powerful and have dangerous complications. We will use our unique approach to get you off drugs and alcohol comfortably and compassionately while improving pain control.

A: Many of our patients tell us that they have tried to stop before coming to Limbic Medical for treatment, but the pain was too great, and they resumed taking the substance they were trying to quit. We can help you with a safe, comfortable, and pain-free medically-assisted detox.

A: Substances that need a safe, medically-assisted withdrawal include, but not limited to:

  • Prescription opioid narcotics
  • Heroin
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Alcohol

A: There’s no easy one-size-fits-all answer for this question. The time that each person needs to thoroughly detox varies depending on several factors: method of detox, substance or combination of substances, how long the substance has been used, and other health conditions. Dr. Atoian can help you determine which method is best for you.

A: Dr. Atoian takes a comprehensive integrative approach to addiction treatment and will work with your psychiatrist, psychologist, therapist, pain specialist, and general doctor to create a plan specific to your needs.

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